Convert Data Frame to Dictionary List in R

In R, there are a couple ways to convert the column-oriented data frame to a row-oriented dictionary list or alike, e.g. a list of lists.

In the code snippet below, I would show each approach and how to extract keys and values from the dictionary. As shown in the benchmark, it appears that the generic R data structure is still the most efficient.

### LIST() FUNCTION IN BASE PACKAGE ###
x1 <- as.list(iris[1, ])
names(x1)
# [1] "Sepal.Length" "Sepal.Width"  "Petal.Length" "Petal.Width"  "Species"
x1[["Sepal.Length"]]
# [1] 5.1

### ENVIRONMENT-BASED SOLUTION ###
envn_dict <- function(x) {
  e <- new.env(hash = TRUE)
  for (name in names(x)) assign(name, x[, name], e)
  return(e)
}

x2 <- envn_dict(iris[1, ])
ls(x2)
# [1] "Petal.Length" "Petal.Width"  "Sepal.Length" "Sepal.Width"  "Species"
x2[["Sepal.Length"]]
# [1] 5.1

### COLLECTIONS PACKAGE ###
coll_dict <-  function(x) {
  d <- collections::Dict$new()
  for (name in names(x)) d$set(name, x[, name])
  return(d)
}

x3 <- coll_dict(iris[1, ])
x3$keys()
# [1] "Petal.Length" "Petal.Width"  "Sepal.Length" "Sepal.Width"  "Species"
x3$get("Sepal.Length")
# [1] 5.1

### HASH PACKAGE ###
hash_dict <- function(x) {
  d <- hash::hash()
  for (name in names(x)) d[[name]] <- x[, name]
  return(d)
}

x4 <- hash_dict(iris[1, ])
hash::keys(x4)
# [1] "Petal.Length" "Petal.Width"  "Sepal.Length" "Sepal.Width"  "Species"
hash::values(x4, "Sepal.Length")
# Sepal.Length
#          5.1

### DATASTRUCTURES PACKAGE ###
data_dict <- function(x) {
  d <- datastructures::hashmap()
  for (name in names(x)) d[name] <- x[, name]
  return(d)
}

x5 <- data_dict(iris[1, ])
datastructures::keys(x5)
# [1] "Species"      "Sepal.Width"  "Petal.Length" "Sepal.Length" "Petal.Width"
datastructures::get(x5, "Sepal.Length")
# [1] 5.1

### FROM PYTHON ###
py2r_dict <- function(x) {
  return(reticulate::py_dict(names(x), x, TRUE))
}

x6 <- py2r_dict(iris[1, ])
x6$keys()
# [1] "Petal.Length" "Sepal.Length" "Petal.Width"  "Sepal.Width"  "Species"
x6["Sepal.Length"]
# [1] 5.1

### CONVERT DATAFRAME TO DICTIONARY LIST ###
to_list <- function(df, fn) {
  l <- list()
  for (i in seq(nrow(df))) l[[i]] <- fn(df[i, ])
  return(l)
}

rbenchmark::benchmark(replications = 100, order = "elapsed", relative = "elapsed",
                      columns = c("test", "replications", "elapsed", "relative", "user.self", "sys.self"),
  "BASE::LIST"              = to_list(iris, as.list),
  "BASE::ENVIRONMENT"       = to_list(iris, envn_dict),
  "COLLECTIONS::DICT"       = to_list(iris, coll_dict),
  "HASH::HASH"              = to_list(iris, hash_dict),
  "DATASTRUCTURES::HASHMAP" = to_list(iris, data_dict),
  "RETICULATE::PY_DICT"     = to_list(iris, py2r_dict)
)
#                     test replications elapsed relative user.self sys.self
#1              BASE::LIST          100   0.857    1.000     0.857    0.000
#2       BASE::ENVIRONMENT          100   1.607    1.875     1.607    0.000
#4              HASH::HASH          100   2.600    3.034     2.600    0.000
#3       COLLECTIONS::DICT          100   2.956    3.449     2.956    0.000
#5 DATASTRUCTURES::HASHMAP          100  16.070   18.751    16.071    0.000
#6     RETICULATE::PY_DICT          100  18.030   21.039    18.023    0.008